• Lithium Ion Battery Charging Best Practices | 2CH Li-ion Battery Charger + 4 Li-ion Batteries

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    Lithium-Ion Battery Charging Best Practices | 2CH Li-ion Battery Charger + 4 Li-ion Batteries

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    Do not overcharge new batteries

    For the "activation" problem of newly purchased lithium-ion batteries, many claims are: charging time must be more than 12 hours, repeated three times in order to activate the battery. This statement that "the first three charges have to be charged for more than 12 hours" is obviously a continuation of nickel batteries (such as nickel cadmium and nickel hydride). So this kind of statement can be said to be misinformation at the beginning. The charge and discharge characteristics of lithium batteries and nickel batteries are very different, and it is very clear to tell everyone that all serious formal technical information emphasizes that overcharge and over-discharge can cause huge problems for lithium batteries, especially liquid lithium ion batteries. hurt. Therefore, charging is preferably performed in accordance with standard time and standard methods, especially for ultra-long charging of more than 12 hours.

    So does the battery need to be activated? The answer is yes, need to activate! However, this process is done by the manufacturer, has nothing to do with the user, and the user has no ability to complete it. The real activation process of a lithium battery is as follows: the lithium-ion battery case is filled with electrolyte – sealing – forming, that is, constant voltage charging, and then discharging, so that several cycles are performed, so that the electrode is fully immersed in the electrolyte to be fully activated until the capacity reaches the requirement. This is the activation process – the volume, which means that the lithium-ion battery has been activated to the user after leaving the factory. In addition, some of the battery activation processes require the battery to be in an open state. After activation, it will be sealed. Unless you have a battery production device, how can it be done?

    Constant force battery repair

    However, why are some products written on the manual, it is recommended that the user use the first three times, to fully charge and discharge the mobile phone? Is this not activated? In fact, the fact is that after the battery is shipped, then sold, and then in the hands of the user, it will go through a period of time, a month or a few months, so that the electrode material of the battery will be "passivated", and the capacity is lower than this. Normal values and usage time are also shortened. However, the lithium battery is easy to activate, as long as the battery is activated after 3 to 5 normal charge and discharge cycles, and the normal capacity is restored. Due to the characteristics of the lithium battery itself, it is determined that it has almost no memory effect. Therefore, the user's new lithium battery does not require special methods and equipment during the activation process. The danger of long charge and deep charge

    The long charge may cause overcharge.

    The lithium battery or charger will automatically stop charging when the battery is fully charged. There is no so-called “turbulent” charging that the nickel battery charger has for 10 hours. In other words, if your lithium battery is full, it will be a white charger on the charger. And none of us can guarantee that the characteristics of the battery's charge and discharge protection circuit will never change and the quality will be foolproof so your battery will be on the edge of danger for a long time. This is another reason why we oppose long charging.

    On some machines, after charging for more than a certain period of time, if you do not remove the charger, then the system will not stop charging, but will also start the discharge-charge cycle. Perhaps the manufacturer of this approach has its own purpose, but it is obviously not good for the life of the battery. At the same time, long charging takes a long time and often needs to be carried out at night. In the case of the mainland power grid, in many places, the voltage at night is relatively high and fluctuates greatly. As mentioned above, the lithium battery is very delicate, it is much less resistant to fluctuations in charge and discharge than nickel, and this brings additional danger.

    In fact, a shallow shallow charge is more beneficial for a lithium battery. Only when the power module of the product is calibrated for lithium battery, it is necessary to deep charge. Therefore, the products that use lithium-ion power supply do not have to be stuck in the process, and everything is convenient and can be charged at any time. The hazard of overcharge and over-discharge The rated voltage of a lithium-ion battery is generally 3.7V due to changes in materials in recent years, and 3.2V for lithium iron phosphate (hereinafter referred to as ferrophosphorus). The termination charging voltage when fully charged is generally 4.2V and the phosphorus iron is 3.65V. The termination discharge voltage of the lithium-ion battery is 2.75V to 3.0V (the battery factory gives the working voltage range or gives the termination discharge voltage, and the parameters are slightly different, generally 3.0V and the phosphorus iron is 2.5V). Subsequent discharge below 2.5V (phosphorus iron 2.0V) is called overdischarge, and low voltage overdischarge or self-discharge reaction may cause decomposition and destruction of lithium ion active material, and may not be reduced. Any form of overcharging of a lithium-ion battery can cause serious damage to the battery performance and even explosion. Lithium-ion batteries must avoid overcharging the battery during the charging process.

    1. Theoretical charging time of the battery

    The theoretical charging time of the battery = the battery's charge divided by the charger's output current.

    For example, taking a battery with a power of 800mAH as an example, the output current of the charger is 500mA, then the charging time is equal to 800mAH/500mA=1.6 hours. When the charger shows that the charging is completed, it is better to give the battery for about half an hour. The charge time.

    2. Battery life-related knowledge reference battery life

    Lithium-ion batteries can only be charged and discharged 500 times?

    I believe that most consumers have heard that the life of lithium batteries is "500 times" and 500 times of charge and discharge. More than this number of times, the battery will be "end to sleep". Many friends are trying to extend the life of the battery every time. Charging when the battery is completely exhausted, does this really extend the life of the battery? the answer is negative. The life of a lithium battery is "500 times", which means not the number of times of charging, but a period of charging and discharging.

    A charge cycle means that all of the battery's charge is from full to empty, and then from empty to full, which is not the same as charging. For example, a lithium battery used only half of its electricity on the first day and then fully charged it. If it is still the next day, it will be charged in half, and it will be charged twice in total. This can only be counted as one charging cycle, not two. Therefore, it is usually possible to complete a cycle after several charges. The battery capacity is reduced a little every time a charge cycle is completed. However, this power reduction is very small. After a high-quality battery has been charged for many cycles, it will still retain 80% of the original capacity. Many lithium-powered products will still be used after two or three years. Of course, the life of the lithium battery still needs to be replaced after the end.

    The so-called 500 times means that the manufacturer has done 625 times of charge at a constant depth of discharge (such as 80%), reaching 500 charge cycles. (80%*625=500) (ignoring factors such as lithium battery capacity reduction) Due to the various effects of real life, especially the depth of discharge during charging is not constant, "500 charging cycles" can only be used as reference battery life.

    3. Life and influencing factors

    Lithium batteries are generally capable of charging and discharging 300-500 times. It is best to partially discharge the lithium battery instead of completely discharging it, and try to avoid frequent full discharges. Once the battery is off the production line, the clock begins to move. Whether you use it or not, the life of a lithium battery is only in the first few years. The decrease in battery capacity is due to an increase in internal resistance due to oxidation (this is the main cause of battery capacity degradation). Finally, the cell resistance will reach a certain point, although the battery is fully charged, the battery cannot release the stored charge.

    The aging speed of a lithium battery is determined by the temperature and state of charge. The table below shows the reduction in battery capacity for both parameters.

    Temperature charging 40% charging 100%

    0°C capacity after one year 98% capacity 94% after one year

    After 25°C, the capacity is 96% after one year, and the capacity is 80% after one year.

    40°C capacity after 8 years, capacity is 65% after one year

    After 60°C, the capacity is 75% after one year, and the capacity is 60% after three months.

    As can be seen from the figure, the high state of charge and increased temperature accelerate the decrease in battery capacity. If possible, try to charge the battery to 40% in a cool place. This allows the battery's own protection circuit to operate for a long period of time. If the battery is placed at a high temperature after being fully charged, it will cause great damage to the battery. (So when we use a fixed power supply, the battery is fully charged at this time, the temperature is usually between 25-30 ° C, which will damage the battery, causing its capacity to drop).

    Experimental data map

    Influencing factor 1: Depth of discharge and number of chargeable times

    From the left graph data obtained from the experiment, it can be known that the number of chargeable times is related to the depth of discharge, and the deeper the battery discharge depth, the less the number of chargeable times. Charging times * Discharge depth = total number of complete cycles, the higher the total number of complete cycles, the higher the life of the battery, the number of times of charging * the depth of discharge = the actual battery life (ignoring other factors)

    Influencing factors 2: overcharge, over-discharge, and large charging and discharging currents To avoid overcharging the battery, any form of overcharging of the lithium-ion battery can cause serious damage to the battery performance and even explosion. Avoid deep discharges below 2V or 2.5V as this will quickly and permanently damage the lithium-ion battery. Internal metal plating may occur, which can cause a short circuit and make the battery unusable or unsafe. Most lithium-ion batteries have electronic circuitry inside the battery pack that disconnects the battery if the battery voltage drops below 2.5V, exceeds 4.3V during charging or discharging, or if the battery current exceeds a predetermined threshold. Avoid large charging and discharging currents because large currents put excessive pressure on the battery.

    Influencing factor 3: Overheated or too cold environment Temperature also has a large impact on lithium battery life. The environment below the freezing point may cause the lithium battery to burn out at the moment when the electronic product is turned on, and the overheated environment will reduce the capacity of the battery. Therefore, if the notebook does not take off the battery after long-term use of the external power supply, the battery will be in the high heat of the notebook for a long time, and will soon be scrapped.

    Influencing factor 4: Long-term full power, no power state, too high and too low power state has an adverse effect on the life of the lithium battery. Most resellers that are sold on appliances or on batteries are re-charged based on 80% discharge. Experiments have shown that for some notebook lithium batteries, the battery voltage often exceeds the standard voltage of 0.1 volts, that is, from 4.1 volts to 4.2 volts, then the battery life will be halved, and then increased by 0.1 volts, the life is reduced to the original 1 /3; The more fully charged the battery, the greater the loss of the battery. A long-term low-power or no-power state will cause the internal resistance of the battery to move more and more, resulting in smaller battery capacity. The lithium battery is preferably in the middle of the battery so that the battery life is the longest.

    From the above, we can summarize the following points to extend the capacity and life of lithium batteries.

    1. If you have used an external power supply to power your notebook for a long time, or if the battery power has exceeded 80%, remove the battery immediately. Usually, the battery does not need to be fully charged, and it can be charged to about 80%. Adjust the power option of the operating system to adjust the battery alarm to more than 20%. The battery level should be at least 20%.

    2. Small electronic devices such as mobile phones should be disconnected immediately after charging the power cable (including the USB interface for charging function). The connection will damage the battery. Always charge, but you don't have to fill the battery.

    3. Whether it is for a notebook or a mobile phone, you must not let the battery run out (automatic shutdown).

    4. If you want to travel, you can charge the battery, but charge the appliance whenever possible.

    5. Use a smarter, more power-efficient operating system.

    Precautions for use

    First, lithium-ion batteries are everywhere in people's lives. Lithium-ion batteries have become an important part of maintaining the operation of these tools, such as various portable electronic products and car GPS. Keeping the lithium-ion battery properly charged and discharged can extend battery life. Maintaining a lithium-ion battery at 10% to 90% helps protect the battery. This means that you don't have to reach the maximum when charging a battery for a digital device such as a mobile phone or laptop. Digital products with lithium-ion batteries are exposed to sunlight or stored in hot cars. It is best to turn them off because if the operating temperature exceeds 60 degrees Celsius, the lithium-ion battery will accelerate aging. Lithium battery charging temperature range: 0 ~ 45 degrees Celsius, lithium battery discharge temperature range 0 ~ 60 degrees Celsius.

    Second, if the phone battery needs to be recharged every day, the reason may be that the battery is defective, or it should be "retired." For the notebook owner, if the plug is plugged in for a long time, it is best to remove the battery (the high heat generated by the computer during use is not good for the laptop battery).

    Third, under normal circumstances, 50% of the power is most conducive to lithium-ion battery storage.

    The correct way to charge

    To sum up, the most important tips for charging and discharging lithium batteries in use are:

    1. Charge according to standard time and procedures, even for new lithium batteries, the first three times;

    2, when the machine is too low, you should start charging as soon as possible (do not wait until the automatic shutdown);

    3. The activation of the lithium battery does not require a special method, and the lithium battery will naturally activate during normal use of the machine. If you insist on activating the "method of the first three 12-hour long charges" that has been circulated, it will not actually work.

    Therefore, all the pursuit of 12 hours of ultra-long charging and the use of single-cell lithium batteries to automatic shutdown is wrong. If you have done it in the wrong way, please correct it in time, maybe it is not too late.

    It is recommended that the life of each mobile phone battery is indeed constant, determined by the number of charging cycles, typically 400-600 times. However, the user's usage habits will also have a greater impact on the battery. Poor use habits, such as overcharging, over-discharge, high-temperature placement, etc., can cause irreversible damage to the battery, making the battery life-stable, and sometimes there may be safety hazards. In addition, by turning off the idle program, you can save power and use every drop of electricity on the blade to do more meaningful things in a limited amount of power.

    Develop good habits, don't wait until there is no electricity to recharge, and don't continue to overcharge for a long time. Lithium ions like to shallow and shallow. Of course, for a normal user, it is very difficult to remember when to charge or turn off the software and other power-saving operations. Kingsoft battery doctors can achieve this goal with one touch of intelligence, and provide a system mode that can be customized according to their actual living habits, helping users to use mobile phone power more reasonably.

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